Volume 10 - No. 33 - January - March 1999

Ebb ~ Flow is a quarterly Bulletin on refugees, displaced persons, stateless and "undocumented" persons in Lebanon, published in Beirut by the Rights Programme of The Lebanese NGO Forum.

IN THIS ISSUE
I- Overview
* Economical situation in Lebanon
* Social situation in Lebanon
* Lebanese Nationality
* Laborer Syndicate Conference
* Lebanese young addicts
* Unemployment in Lebanon
II- The Displaced
* Officials sharp follow-up of displaced issues.
* Administrative workshop in the central fund for the displaced
III- The Refugees
* Palestinian Refugees (Palestinian's travel restrictions eased)
* Lebanon and asylum seekers
IV- Human Rights issues (Migrants):
* The illegal immigration from Lebanon to Cyprus
* Lebanese-Cypriot agreement
* Suffering trip of the Lebanese
* Migrants coming from Sierra Leone
V- The South
The case of Arnoun:
* The annexation of Arnoun
* The official producers taken for the case of Arnoun
* The surveillance group studying Arnoun case
* Students breaking through Arnoun
* Army and popular gathering
* Arab praise of Arnoun operation
* Endurance of prisoners in the Israeli jails
References


READ ALL ABOUT
Social Situation
Lebanese Nationality
" ...we are in
need of urgent
legislative rules,
which enable the
Lebanese migrants
to acquire or
retrieve their
original nationality."
The South
Arnoun
"This popular
upheaval is
considered the
most splendid fusion
between the people
and the inhabitants
of the besieged
village..."
The Economical situation in Lebanon  
Three main goals cited for the economical plan of 1999:
1. Reduction of indebtedness
2. Decreasing the deficit
3. Launching up development
What's in the plan?

The plan as stated by trust-resources in the ministry of finance is aiming to procure basis for a new economical policy focusing on two principle divisions: Decreasing deficit through analytical methods to all elements of payments and revenue income balance; and reducing the general debt, enabling to fulfill the following targets:
a. Treatment of general indebtedness
b. Launching up the development process leading to reach an averaged level not less 3% annually. Then by decreasing deficit to 5% of the national local yields. To achieve those objectives in turn needs the following:

1. A taxation policy, specially distinguished, modern, & contemporary, able to achieve justice and taxation- reforming
2. An Industrial rescue-process, and the necessity to return to an Industrial-Ground base in order to create new job-opportunities for the coming generation. Allowing to reduce the commercial-balance-deficit
3. To tend towards the technological and economical production, and develop its standards in a way that fits the next third millenium.
4. Rescue campaigns of the agricultural fields and exploit efficiency its water sources. One of the most important procedures taken with respect to this issue, is that; lately the Central Bank took several decisions in regard enabling the banking sector to approach loan intermediate terms. Decisions such as:
1- Activating the business-banks and granting five new licenses in this field
2- To secure equality between the commercial and the business banks, this is done when commercial banks are exempted from the obligation of keeping the imperative provision (reserves)
3- To permit banks the right to issue multi-currency debentures or credit-instruments, equivalently worth six times its real private funds purposing to provide intermediate-termed revenues. In order to give more details of our economy, below is a table that summarizes the financial situation in January, February 1998,1999 in millions of L.L.


  Jan-98 Jan-99 Feb-98 Feb-99 Total 98 Total 99 Total difference
1-Budget operations
a-Revenues 265.221 311.324 283.177 274.605 584.398 585.929 +37.531
Tax-revenues 241.382 286.459 197.914 223.246 439.296 509.705  
Non tax-revenues 23.839 24.865 85.263 51.359 109.102 76.224  
b-Expenditures 408.552 363.146 240.780 356.242 649.332 719.388 +70.056
General expenditures 133.271 85.441 87.725 191.012 220.996 276.453  
G. debts servitudes 275.281 277.705 153.055 165.230 428.336 442.935  
Internal debt 271.290 271.961 151.000 159.000 422.290 430.961  
External debt 3.991 5.7442 2.055 6.230 6.046 11.975  
c-Total budget deficit -143.331 -51.822 42.397 -81.637 -100.934 -133.459 -32.525
2-Treasury operation
a-Cash received 35.787 23.167 56.001 35.949 91.788 59.116 -32.672
b-Cash paid 220.086 75.504 241.145 160.543 461.231 236.047 -225.184
3-General sum
a-Sum of cash received 301.008 334.491 339.178 310.554 640.186 645.045 4.859
b-Sum of cash paid 628.638 347.650 481.925 516.785 1.110.563 955.435 -155.128
The Social situation in Lebanon  
Lebanese Nationality

The issue of the Lebanese nationality is again under constructive cycle of search

* Preface: Again the subject of the Lebanese nationality recirculates by all its details: Technical, legislative, judicial aspects, political and religious rites; all arose in search of the objective cycle to confine a contemporary law: a law complying with full developments ever passed and known by the Lebanese society from one side, unified, gathering divisible texts and concepts that were the result of humanitarian or religious necessities along decades from another side.
According and in respect to all these ex-considerations, it was found that we are in need of urgent legislative rules, which enable the Lebanese migrants to acquire or retrieve their original nationality. Although there are many committees constituted their functions and duties are formulating new nationality laws, but none-of these yielded nor fertilized (fruitless of any legislative resolution). Hope still exists in producing and issuing a new legislative law, a law which regulates and organizes nationality granting, bearing among its contents, many common factors along like other Arabic legislation, inclusion of some examples but not exclusively are the following:

1. Considering the blood bond as the principle rule to acquire the Lebanese nationality (Father relevant).

2. Taking in consideration "ground boundary" with respect to illegitimate children born in Lebanon.

3. Acquire of The Lebanese nationality by a foreign wife married to a Lebanese citizen by effect of marriage-contract, where strict conditions should be provided, preserving the state-right to take back and reject this benefit granting term within a specified limited period (5 years suggestion).

4. To restrict the conditions of granting a foreigner the Lebanese nationality (with respect to his age, fund capability, educational degree(s), character and ethical background).
5. De-nationalization for every nationalized individual sentenced in the Lebanese courts or abroad, and judged with a shameful -adverse act by criminal laws, or any act against the state interior and/or exterior security, or sentenced by any act of damage and torte towards the state economical and sociological affairs.

6. Specifying special conducts which allow the originated Lebanese citizen who lost his original nationality during his stay outside Lebanon to reacquire it.

7. To constitute a committee with wide judicial authorities which studies all applications concerning acquiring, loosing, and regaining the Lebanese nationality.

The laborer syndicate conference: " let's defend upon the loaf-cause and liberties"

The laborer syndicate began their conference by calling upon officials to take all appropriate measures so that all criminals be brought to trial; regardless of their rank or level. They also called upon the following: Refusal of the "privacy concept" Stressing on the necessity to stick to the rules of the governing state. Reaching real tax amendments. Restrain exemption policies. The reconsideration of Solidere files and other real-estate companies. Adjustment of electricity tariff, rates of water supply and the telephone charges. Assessment of new age policies. Reactivating the high-cost living indicator. Immediate decisive freeze of all prices, costs and charges specially in the domain of education, medication, and social services.
The conference also requested others to reconsider the current constructional policy and other policies.
In addition, encouragement of small and intermediate initiatives like: "professions, craft, and skills", moreover supporting the farmers and the fishermen, amending the Lebanese law of labor, protecting Lebanese workers, specially from the illegal foreign competence, protecting the social security fund, rising up the budgetary of (state staff-cooperatives) in order to enhance and enlarge it's field of services, fulfilling demands concerning Lebanese-university professors, and high school teachers together with retired teachers' pensions.
In the second section of the conference, it's report revolved around the economical-social issues aiming to decrease the financial wasting by accrediting a real austerity practice, to re-enforce the social expenditures and payments by reconstituting a new tax-system that modifies profit-taxation on companies and associations and increasing it to 20% in parallel to reducing the individual income tax.
The above mentioned report clarified that several indicators exist and are interpreted tools of the economical crisis. Some of which are: wage decay and reconstruction, "where empirical indicators of prices and value, raised since early 1992 up till the of 1998 to 363,9 points (taking into consideration 1992 as a basic year). Where as the normative indicator of the average adjusting wages reached during that period 190,7 points only, while in fact wages in 1/1/99 are supposed to increase to 90,8% for it to regain it's former actual levels as in 1/1/92".
As a conclusion, the report stressed on the creation of a new wage policy that activates the high-cost living indicator committee.

The Lebanese Young Addicts

A study carried out in Beirut area in 1994, showed that drug users were not seeking help because they did not know who to turn to and because of a misconception that treatment if available, would be inadequate.
Unfortunately, what most probably discourages addicts to seek treatment in Lebanon is the painful fact of our laws. Example of which, is a dangerous law passed in the parliament in March 1988. Despite of all the efforts by NGO's to fight it, this law was adopted. The lawallows the police to follow drug addicts during their treatment and lock them up if they use drug again.
Such a law is very dangerous because it doesn't take into consideration that every drug abuser relapses during treatment and disregards the confidence built between the caretaker and the drug user.
In attempts to reach those young addicts, the "Soins Infirmiers et Developpement Communautaire" (SIDC) in collaboration with the French "SOS Drogue Internationale", launched a three- day seminar financed by the European Union to help other NGO's reach young people at high risk of drug addiction. A larger project to set up a day care center for drug addicts is expected to open its doors to drug addicts in march 1999 in Sin El-Fil. Hoping that the government give those addicts a hand of help and embraces them instead of destroying their only last hope in treatment.May be the amendments of such destructive Laws as the above mentioned one, and dealing with this matter as other civilized countries do, would be a solution…

Unemployment in Lebanon "A serious problem"

The labor minister Michael Moussa reported that unemployment in Lebanon may in fact be as high as 25% of the labor force and that 16% of workers were jobless.
Obviously university graduates were mostly affected by rising unemployment and tended to immigrate. Dr. Moussa said: "There should be awareness campaigns specifically aimed at students to direct them towards gaps in the productive sector".
A reliable economical source, Mr. Kamal Hamdan, explained that Lebanon financial resources are being channeled into the public sector projects that do not create long-term employment and hinder job creation in the private sector. Probably and as Mr. Hamdan believes that in the short run we will face higher unemployment, higher immigration, and therefore collapse of financially weak establishments. He assures that Beirut and its suburbs had the lowest level of unemployment. Mr. Elias Abu Rizk, the head of the general labor confederation, explained that there should be an increased dialogue between the government, employers and their employees, and that this issue is needed to be addressed "not just in words but in practice". Suggestions call upon Arab countries to set up new strategies to create new jobs and developing markets.

Officials sharp follow-up of displaced issues

The continuing Lebanese crisis will remain without a final, permanent solution as long as the 450.000 displaced Lebanese victims (inside Lebanon) are not returned to their villages and towns.They must return with dignity and honor, and not as losers and slaves. The internal critically bleeding Lebanese war-wound will never heal as long as the displaced are not provided full legal and practical support to reclaim their homes, land and other confiscated properties. Lebanon is the only country in the world now where one-six of its population are displaced in their own country by their own people.

The basic and essential foundation stone in the new presidential marching, is the case and return of the displaced. President Emile Lahoud is contributing, calling and commanding men and commissions in charge to provide and secure equally all the rights of displaced citizens. Moreover, minister Anwar El Khalil is preparing a comprehensive study about the displaced situation, and considered that the return to their lands is directly linked to funds availability, because funds enable the performance of all necessary projects in this matter. Funds as a main source for displaced issues consisted along frequent periods, crisis and disputes between ex-governors, as they mutually blamed and accused each other of the waste, squandering and embezzlement of such funds.

Administrative Workshop in the Central Fund for the Displaced:

Information states that the central fund for the displaced since its foundation and up to the present date, did not have any clear legal structure, for that reason the central fund started heading towards the enforcement of its position and confirming its responsibility in the plotting of the return strategy into execution, that 's for confirming the credibility of the new regimen, which is manifested by the reconstruction of the administration and the reform of the same. This matter leads to the foundation of an administrative working committee or workshop which belongs to the central fund; the importance of this workshop is manifested by the followings:
- first: the speed by which it started;
- second: The administrative movement came as autonomous initiative from the central fund; in other words it came from where no one expected , when some were saying and assuming that such a workshop must start from the ministry for the displaced which makes the plans and prepares the files and then sends them to the central fund for execution and payment of compensations;
- third: the committee in the fund also included a Labor system for those working in it; before that the work of the employees was not governed by any legal regulations, and major laborers and employees were not registered nor recorded in the temporarily section neither subjected to contracts or agreements ,in fact many staff-board and heads of departments and employees were appointed in the fund in major positions and posts without having the needed diploma, all the employees nominated are not subject to any legal regulation or law to govern their work;
- fourth: The central fund is aiming to reconsider the evacuation applications and investigations which were made and are taking place periodically. A working team was found from ten elements of the central fund and the same number from the ministry for the Displaced for restudying the files and making the site investigations. In accordance with the fact that dominants the central fund, it is well known and planned that the presidency of it's new committee shall reform it's structure and make an interior legal system, waiting for it's ratification by the custody authority that is the Prime Ministry. The preparatory stage is waiting for the 1999 general budget of the state and the allotment by the ministry of the amount of money needed for the resuming of the evacuations and the distribution of the money. From here the case of the displaced people is considered as a national case which is wider than the region and the sects and needs a political decision before a financial one.
The new head of the central fund Shadi Masaad declared that his aim is to achieve the return of all the displaced within three years (the return to be concluded by 2002) and to eliminate the squandering of funds. He also stressed that their return would not be subjected to the government austerity plan, because austerity could not be applied to humanitarian and social issues…

- Palestinian Refugees: Palestinians's travel restrictions eased

The government eased the tight travel restrictions imposed on palestinian refugees in lebanon. This decision was the result of many consultations between president Emile Lahoud and prime minister Salim El-Hoss, in the first step towards relieving constraints denying up to 360.000 Palestinian's basic civil rights.
From now on the Lebanese travel documents granted to Palestinians living in Lebanon, will be considered as passports. They still required clearance to travel from the general security, but the permits will be valid for six months and enables their bearer multiple trips within that period. Previously, they needed exit and re-entry visas. Such travel documents are granted under two conditions: 1st the applicant must be registered at the general security, and 2nd he/she must also be registered at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA).
The Lebanese General Security clarified that resolution no. 478 adopted in 1995 - it obliged Palestinians living in Lebanon to have an entry and exit visa in order to leave or enter Lebanon - was not repealed, and assured that the new resolution only eases their movements and fastens their affairs and transactions.
The joint command of the popular and democratic fronts for the liberation of Palestinians (PFLP) and (DFLP), welcomed the decision and expressed their gratitude to president Lahoud, Prime minister Salim El -Hoss and all ministers, hoping that Dr. Hoss's cabinet would take more measures to ease the plight of Palestinians in Lebanon and secure their long denied human and civil rights, like their denied right to work in some 75 professions.
The Palestinians Popular Committee in the Ain Al-Hil-weh refugee camp near Sidon and many others welcomed the decision and thanked the Lebanese authorities.

- Palestinian Refugees: Palestinians's travel restrictions eased

The government eased the tight travel restrictions imposed on palestinian refugees in lebanon. This decision was the result of many consultations between president Emile Lahoud and prime minister Salim El-Hoss, in the first step towards relieving constraints denying up to 360.000 Palestinian's basic civil rights.
From now on the Lebanese travel documents granted to Palestinians living in Lebanon, will be considered as passports. They still required clearance to travel from the general security, but the permits will be valid for six months and enables their bearer multiple trips within that period. Previously, they needed exit and re-entry visas. Such travel documents are granted under two conditions: 1st the applicant must be registered at the general security, and 2nd he/she must also be registered at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA).
The Lebanese General Security clarified that resolution no. 478 adopted in 1995 - it obliged Palestinians living in Lebanon to have an entry and exit visa in order to leave or enter Lebanon - was not repealed, and assured that the new resolution only eases their movements and fastens their affairs and transactions.
The joint command of the popular and democratic fronts for the liberation of Palestinians (PFLP) and (DFLP), welcomed the decision and expressed their gratitude to president Lahoud, Prime minister Salim El -Hoss and all ministers, hoping that Dr. Hoss's cabinet would take more measures to ease the plight of Palestinians in Lebanon and secure their long denied human and civil rights, like their denied right to work in some 75 professions.
The Palestinians Popular Committee in the Ain Al-Hil-weh refugee camp near Sidon and many others welcomed the decision and thanked the Lebanese authorities.

- Lebanon and asylum-seekers

The right of the individual to seek asylum is stated under article 14 of the universal declarations of human rights.
Lebanon A country that doesn't grant refugees the right of political asylum, it yet allows the temporary residence of such refugees and embraces around 3800 refugees. The majority of which are from Iraq and Sudan. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), represented by an office in Lebanon, supplies the refugees with refugee cards and provides the necessary protection and financial support throughout their stay in Lebanon. Since their stay is temporary they don't enjoy full rights and mainly the right to work.
The office faces difficulties in this concern because the UN program only offers about one million of U.S. dollars to those refugees and this budget is always not enough due to their continuous increase.
The UNHCR therefore aims to transfer those refugees to a 3rd country or to their homelands if possible, furthermore the UNHCR is not mandated to deal with Palestinians in Lebanon or designated areas as that issue falls under the responsibility of UNRWA.
Its office in Lebanon currently deals with and hosts more than 3800 case for families coming from different countries. The director of the international department the UNHCR, Mr. Dennis McNamara, in a visit to Lebanon praised Lebanon for its openness to asylum seekers for thousand of middle eastern refugees: even though the Lebanese government up till now did nor ratify the 1951 Geneva convention on refugee status.
He also declared that prime minister Salim El-Hoss and interior minister Michel El-Murr reassured their full cooperation to the refugee issue and expressed their willingness to work with UNHCR to minimize the consequences. "our goal is to strengthen our role here, the expedite refugee cases, determine who is a refugee and identify who should be considered for resettlement in other countries," Mr. McNamara said.
All this will have to be accomplished with an ever-shrinking budget so their staff has been cut but their first priority will always be "protection" . "Asylum is fundamental until refugees can safely return home," he added. Consequently, the UNHCR periodically writes to governments urging them to sign the 1951 treaty, which 137 countries have already ratified. The only countries in the region which are signatories are Egypt and Yemen, Mr. McNamara said, explaining that many countries remained hesitant despite the fact that the treaty could be ratified with reservations.
"There are many reasons why countries have not signed it. For a country like Lebanon and what it's been through, it's probably not a priority."

- The illegal immigration from Lebanon to Cyprus

Lebanon and Cyprus agreed to put an end to the disordered immigration, which creates a real problem between both neighboring countries known as "The Illegal Immigration". This agreement came after 29 persons on board of a vessel coming from Lebanon approached the Cypriot coasts, violating and breaching both the local and international laws of international navigation.

Lebanese - Cypriots agreement regarding migrants

Lebanon has shown his wish to negotiate this matter with Cyprus, and solve this issue according to the frame of internal and international laws. A scheme agreed upon between the two countries is to be executed by routing patrols of Coast-guard boats in order to: Secure the marine borders and monitor their functions Identify boats, vessels, ships, and schooners sailing within the territorial sea water Verify and check up duty of the identification of passengers and crew In addition to the above mentioned procedures, both countries urged to intensify mutual cooperation and exchange of information between their security system. This is done to treat wisely all problems met at their pre-incidents. Accordingly, Lebanon started applying the laws concerning the persons who entered illegally the Cypriot national marine border. As a result, Lebanon accepted to take back only six of them after the general security proved that those six persons were actually launched from Lebanon. On the other hand, our authorities refused to accept the others and disagreed the fact that their departure was from any Lebanese port. In appreciation of these Lebanese executions, the Cypriot Minister of Internal Affairs declared that the relationship between both countries is strong and positive. He stressed that it will continue to the best and cleared that this issue of illegal migration is not only a problem between Lebanon and Cyprus but is also a real challenge meeting several European countries in the Mediterranean area, which needs collective procedures in this concern.

- Suffering trip of the Lebanese migrants coming from Sierra Leone

Nowadays, on the Lebanese era, the crisis, existence and destiny of the Lebanese communities in Freetown, and other African continents, is highly being considered. Where the Lebanese refugees are subjected to killing acts, as well as robbery and vagrancy.
For the purpose of resolving this problem activated package of diplomatic efforts reacted in all aspect to give: a final solution to the wide-existence of Lebanese citizens there, in addition, to secure their lives and preserve their fundamental benefits and interests.
At first, connections with the international Red Cross organization had been made unfortunately, (I.R.C.O) proved unable but almost disabled to assist or submit any aid available, this fact is due to disputes on arena between the I.R.C.O administration and the African authorization. Also the Lebanese foreign affairs cabled to their representatives activating along the African countries, asking them to offer all possible help and rescue ability and facility to the detriments and deserters from Sierra Leone.
So Airway companies have been contacted in order to participate in the evacuation process of the plane carring the Lebanese, as a result the plane carrying the refugees from Sieraleon was exempted from all charges and therefore, it was a free charge flight enrout to Beirut airport.
With all the help offered, still immigratory and parliamentary resources as well as migrants who recently came back from Sierra Leone declared that; "the staff-board of the ministry of migrant affairs and some prominent Lebanese figures who visited Sieraleon earlier, asked for our help and contribution, and inspite of all our acute problems we executed donations and transported them to their establishments and foundations;
But unfortunately when we desperately needed their help during our painful trip and in the Lebanese airport ,we were shocked we didn't get the help we expected…" President Lahoud, president of the parliament Nabih Berri, and prime minister Salim El-Hoss called upon, to whom it may concern to, give this migratory subject all the essential attention.
They also declared that the government should reconsider its vision policy with respect to its "migratory strategy" in order to constitute coordinated arrangements and to avoid the Lebanese from such futural torte incidents.

The case of Arnoun

Where is Arnoun located? Arnoun is located outside the frontier of the region occupied by Israel in the south of Lebanon, alongside of Israel. Its houses are dispersed on a hillside often penetrated by the army. At some mile away from Arnoun, rises the salibian Chakif fortress, transformed by the Israeli to a garrison, from which they shed lights from spotlights on the village in broad daylight, and from the village of Chkif, a road is extended following the summit of the hill reaching the village protected by huge concrete cubes. Due to the sensitivity of its location, and the tracking by the Israeli army of the resistance groups (Al-Moukawama), Israel started to destroy 21 houses; destroying and ravaging houses did not begin recently but returns to 1987. Since 1985, cars were not able to pass through the narrow roads, for Israel had erected a huge earthy roadblock at the main entrance surmounted by concrete cubes: that happened after the explosion of a booby-trapped car in 1984.

THE ANNEXATION OF ARNOUN

The Israeli occupation forces, among which are the militiamen of the north Lebanon army, the traitors, undertook to annex Arnoun ( in the caza of Nabatieh ) to the security line, alleging that they want to limit the attacks of the Islamic national resistance (al-Moukawama), with the eminence of the Israeli elections. Thus, they implanted the barbwires and laid mines around the village, whose inhabitants flew away and only a few of them remained, pretending that Hizbollah has concealed weapons in the houses of the village inhabitants.

THE OFFICIAL PROCEDURES TAKEN FOR ARNOUN CASE

Official sources reported that Lebanon is about to present a complaint to the international security council, pertaining to the annexation of Arnoun by Israel, in case the committee of April understanding was unable to treat this new attack, and in case the campaign of objection concerning the annexation of Arnoun continues. The surveillance group is studying the annexation of Israel: On February 22nd, the international surveillance group originating from April understanding held a meeting in the headquarters of the UNIFIL in Nakoura, in order to study four complaints, three of which emanate from Lebanon, amongst which we find the recent assault which appeared to be the annexation of Arnoun, particularly that the occupation forces has surrounded the village by booby-trapped barbwires, which constitute an immediate danger to the inhabitants life, forbidding students from continuing their studies outside the village, and contributing in cutting off supplies, this matter which not only violates the Lebanese inhabitants rights,but also the human rights all over the world.

STUDENTS BREAKING THROUGH ARNOUN

After the official ,diplomatic and political reactions at high levels in order to deal with the case of Arnoun, a popular movement took place on February the 26th towards the village, topped by the removal of barbwires. The manifestation was conducted by a huge number of Lebanese people, the majority of which were constituted of students coming from various Lebanese universities and from different regions ; they reached the village at 1: 30 p.m. This popular upheaval is considered the most splendid fusion between the people and the inhabitants of the besieged village, where the Lebanese youth devastated the barbed wires which surrounded Arnoun, swept it away, and cut it then hoisted the Lebanese flags, raising national cries and anthems, careless of the gunfire shot by the occupation forces, from the Chkif fortress in order to terrify them.

ARMY AND POPULAR GATHERING TO PARTICIPATE IN THE WEDDING OF THE LIBERATION

The ceremonies of liberation continued in Arnoun where compatriots came one after another from various regions in Lebanon, and the festivities coincided with a torrent of attitudes and reactions, speaking of the heroic and historical move of the students of Lebanon. The president of the republic, General Emile Lahoud addressed his compliments to the inhabitants of Arnoun and the Lebanese compatriots for their courageous move, the ex-prime minister, Rafic El-Hariri also complimented their courageous move, and the present prime minister Salim El-Hoss complimented the inhabitants of Arnoun, and so did the president of the parliament and many spiritual authorities.

ARABIC PRAISE OF ARNOUN OPERATION

Some Arab countries complimented the Lebanese students for the move they made in liberating Arnoun from occupation. In Damascus, for example, the Syrian newspapers reported that the president of the people's council has complimented in the name of the people's council the resistant south of Lebanon; from Cairo, the Arab University praised the student's upheaval ; In Abu Dhabi, the minister of information and education expressed the pride of the commandant, the government and the people of the United Arab Emirates for the spontaneous peaceful heroic move carried out by the young people of Lebanon; From Riyadh, Saudi Arabia denounced this outrageous aggression; the minister of defense in Kuwait praised the student's upheaval. As a conclusion, we call upon the liberals all over the world to take action against the racial and aggressive politic of Israel, we also call upon the permanent secretary of the United Nations and the International Security Council to move and without delay in order to force Israel to withdraw from all the occupied territories in Lebanon, Syria and Palestine, and to completely recognize the rights of the Arabic people all over its territories.

ENDURANCE OF PRISONERS IN THE ISRAELI JAILS

Israel has released two internees from the Ashkelon Prison, who are the Lebanese compatriot Kassem Mohamad Fares ( 31 years) and Mahmoud Nemr El-Ali a Palestinian citizen. The two internees were handed over to the lebanese army by delegates of the international committee of the red cross at the Hamra crossroads south of Tyre , from where they were transported to the Sour barracks before they were delivered to their families. The liberated internee Kassem Fares held a press conference, along with the organizer responsible of the south region, Khalil Hamdan who declared: "we are raising the voice highly, in objection to the violations of human rights that is happening within the Israeli prisons , where a great number of prisoners has served their sentence which was administratively extended in a way that is contrary to the lower standards of human rights." At the end of his speech, Hamdan addressed his salutations to the heroes detained in Israel, calling upon the universal conscience to stand in the face of Israel. Asking the Lebanese government, through the ministry of foreign affairs, to explain the torture suffered by the Lebanese prisoners within the Israeli prisons. Finally, Fares expressed his exaltation of being freed from the Israeli prisons and his bitterness for the internees who are being fallen in oblivion. He also declared: " We did not see or hear from any of our relatives on any spatial Lebanese channel addressing us a message or reporting news". He also reported that there is a huge number of internees who suffered form diseases, for the lack of sanitary and medical health care watching over the prisoners,and because there is one doctor for each five hundred internees!

Economical Situation in Lebanon

Al-Anwar, Jan. 07, 1999
Al-Anwar, Jan. 26, 1999
Al-Diar, Jan. 09, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 26, 1999
Al-Diar, Mar. 03, 1999
Al-Liwae, Feb. 19, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 08, 1999
Al-Nahar, Mar. 06, 1999
Al-Safir, Jan. 26, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 24, 1999
Al-Safir, Mar. 22, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 02, 1999
The Daily Star, Mar. 10, 1999

Lebanese Nationality

Al-Anwar, Jan. 30, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 08, 1999
Al-Safir, Jan. 16, 1999

Laborer Syndicate Conference

Al-Anwar, Feb. 17, 1999
Al-Anwar, Feb. 18, 1999
Al-Safir, Mar. 1, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Jan. 15, 1999

Groups and Lebanese Young Addicts

The Daily Star, Feb. 03, 1999

Unemployment in Lebanon

The Daily Star, Feb. 09, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Feb. 04, 1999

The Case of Arnoun

Al-Anwar, Feb. 20, 1999
Al-Anwar, Feb. 23, 1999
Al-Anwar, Feb. 24, 1999
Al-Anwar, Feb. 27, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 20, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 22, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 24, 1999
Al-Liwae, Jan. 13, 1999
Al-Liwae, Feb. 19, 1999
Al-Liwae, Feb. 20, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 20, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 23, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 20, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 22, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 23, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 18, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 23, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Feb. 19, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Feb. 27, 1999

Endurance of Prisoners in the Israeli Jails

Al-Anwar, Feb. 27, 1999
Al-Anwar, Mar. 01, 1999
Al-Diar, Mar. 09, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 22, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 27, 1999
Al-Nahar, Mar. 01, 1999
The Daily Star, Mar. 03, 1999

The Illegal Immigration from Lebanon to Cyprus

Al-Anwar, Jan. 27, 1999
Al-Anwar, Feb. 22, 1999
Al-Nahar, Jan. 18, 1999
Al-Nahar, Jan. 21, 1999
Al-Nahar, Jan. 27, 1999
Al-Safir, Jan. 27, 1999
The Daily Star, Jan. 16, 1999
The Daily Star, Jan. 18, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Jan. 21, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Jan. 22, 1999

Suffering Trip of the Lebanese Migrants Coming from Sierra Leone Al-Anwar, Jan. 12, 1999

Al-Diar, Feb. 09, 1999
Al-Diar, Mar. 30, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 01, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 01, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 01, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Jan. 29, 1999

The Displaced

Al-Anwar, Jan. 26, 1999
Al-Anwar, Jan. 29, 1999
Al-Diar, Jan. 14, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 09, 1999
Al-Diar, Feb. 26, 1999
Al-Diar, Mar. 20, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 23, 1999
Al-Nahar, Feb. 24, 1999
Al-Nahar, Mar. 13, 1999
Al-Nahar, Mar. 23, 1999
Al-Nahar, Mar. 24, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 08, 1999
The Daily Star, Jan. 28, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 17, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 26, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Feb. 26, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Mar. 23, 1999

Palestinian Refugees

Al-Diar, Jan. 13, 1999
Al-Nahar, Jan. 13, 1999
Al-Nahar, Jan. 14, 1999
Al-Safir, Jan. 13, 1999
Al-Safir, Jan. 15, 1999
The Daily Star, Jan. 13, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Jan. 16, 1999

Lebanon and Asylum Seekers

Al-Anwar, Feb. 18, 1999
Al-Anwar, Mar. 19, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 18, 1999
Al-Safir, Feb. 20, 1999
The Daily Star, Feb. 26, 1999
L'Orient Le Jour, Feb. 18, 1999